Tuesday, October 29, 2013

The South Africa: from apartheid to Mandela

The history of South Africa does not start with the introduction of apartheid in 1948. It does not end with the consecration of Nelson Mandela in 1994. This is obvious. But there is another. If we asked our contemporaries in this country , they say " apartheid " and " Mandela " . As if they had to mind : South Africa is the country of Nelson Mandela, who ended apartheid in becoming president . Simplistic, but not fake. 

Recommended: Latest Nigerian NewsApartheid first. The word comes from the French "apart " and means "separation" in Afrikaans, the language of the Afrikaners . Some authors argue that it is used for the first time in 1917 by Jan Smuts , in one of his speeches before he became Prime Minister in 1919. It is a policy of separate development of populations along ethnic and linguistic lines , in selected geographical areas.
This policy is formalized with a lot of laws and regulations, from 1948, by the National Party , led by the Calvinist pastor Daniel Malan . The population is classified into four main categories: whites, Indians, Métis and blacks. Cities are reserved for whites , the other communities are confined to ghettos.
Apartheid , a generic term , is divided into two branches : the "little apartheid " , which limits the contact of whites with non -whites , and the "grand apartheid " , which defines the space into separate geographical areas and ethnically determined . The "little apartheid " concerns mainly public transport and more generally public places .
The "grand apartheid " culminates with the forced consolidation of blacks, according to their tribal origin and language , in Bantustans destined to become " independent countries " . Result: a big rich and prosperous country inhabited by white South Africans hosting a large number of black migrant workers , citizens of "independent" homelands or very poor " self " , the latter producing the wealth that the first benefit .
Mandela then . The life of Nelson Mandela is a novel. And , once again , truth is stranger than fiction. Entered adulthood , the man engages in a struggle for justice and equality. There never deviate . In 1944, with his accomplices, Walter Sisulu and Oliver Tambo , he created the Youth League of the African National Congress (ANC ), an organization founded in 1912 to oppose apartheid. The ANC launched the armed struggle in 1961. Mandela heads Umkhonto we Sizwe ( " spear of the nation" ) , the military wing of the organization. He was arrested by the police in 1962 and sentenced in 1964 to life imprisonment . He spends twenty-seven years of his life in prison.
It is released on 11 February 1990 by the will of President de Klerk came to power six months earlier . De Klerk realized that the white minority could not indefinitely run the country by oppressing the black majority. Off negotiations , no salvation . These are conducted at no charge. Apartheid was officially abolished June 30, 1991 . Three years after the release of Mandela, the country has an interim constitution and preparing the first multiracial elections, held on 27 April 1994.
The ANC emerged victorious election and Nelson Mandela became the first black president in the history of South Africa. The country is in a state of grace unprecedented . Mandela appointed two vice presidents Thabo Mbeki and FW De Klerk . It is dedicated to the Rainbow Nation and quickly announced that he will not seek a second term . Thabo Mbeki succeeded him in 1999. He does not complete his second term , the victim of a sling of the ANC , led by Jacob Zuma, who will win the 2009 elections .
South Africa has overcome apartheid. She is now fighting to reduce inequality , poverty , unemployment and defeat crime. She saw walk- in democracy ... suspended bulletins health of Nelson Mandela.
" The South Africa: from apartheid to Mandela " , 104 pages , 6.90 euros.
Next volume: " welfare state : a model to reinvent " (released March 28).
Frederic Fritscher"World History " on France Inter
Every Saturday , France Inter offers appointments presented by Jean Lebrun , 7 h 43 in the morning . In partnership with Le Monde, this column is the opportunity to develop the themes of the collection " The World History . Understanding a Changing World " , with the authors of books.

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